Kapas is unginned cotton or the white fibrous substance covering the seed that is obtained from the cotton plant. Ginning separates the lint (about one-third in weight) from the seed (two-thirds in weight). Lint, commonly known as rui in Hindi, is the raw material used for manufacturing of cotton yarn or thread, which is further woven to make fabrics.
Cotton’s strength, absorbency, and capacity to be washed and dyed makes it adaptable to a considerable variety of textile products. Cotton seed is crushed to make cottonseed cake, which is used in livestock feed; and cottonseed oil which is the 5th major edible oil consumed in the world.
Cotton is classified according to the staple, grade, and character of each bale—staple refers to the fibre length; grade ranges from coarse to premium and is a function of colour, brightness and purity; and character refers to the fibre’s strength and uniformity. The biggest cultivators of cotton are America, India, China, Egypt, Pakistan, Sudan and Eastern Europe, with China, the U.S. and India being the three largest producers of cotton.
Although cotton is cultivated in almost all the states in India, nine states— Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka—account for more than 95% of the area under cultivation.
In India cotton is sown during March to September and harvested during September to April. The peak marketing season for the crop is during November to March.
Cotton (Kapas) Live Chart